Organic Compounds Examples

15 Organic Compounds Examples

Organic compounds examples in detail

Aliphatic compounds

These are the compounds which have just carbon and hydrogen elements in them. The bonds between two carbons can vary as one, two or even three. These compounds can be enormous like Hexane a six carbon chain {CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3}, heptane {CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3}, octane eight-member carbon chain, etc.

Ex: Ethane {H3C-CH3}, Ethene {H2C=CH2}, Acetylene {HC≡CH}. These compounds are used widely. Like ethene is used in making plastic bags i.e. polyethylene covers. While the acetylene gas is used in gas welding for joining of metal parts.

Alicyclic Compounds

As the name indicates, these compounds are similar to the above but form a ring in their structures. They are formed by a single bond between two carbon atoms in the chain. They are named as Cyclopentane for five carbon rings, cyclohexane for a six member ring structure, etc.examples of organic compounds

Compounds with functional groups. The same aliphatic compounds can have Oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, etc. as part of chemistry. These chemical points in the molecule are called as functional groups. These functional groups impart a distinctive character to the plain aliphatic chain or rings.

Functional groups having carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Aldehydes

These have an OH group linked to a carbon atom in the chain. Examples include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde. Formaldehyde is used to store biological specimens. They are also found in carbohydrate monomers.

 Ketones

These are the structures having oxygen linked with a double bond to a carbon atom i.e. {C=O} in the molecule. Some examples include acetone, glucose, sucrose, fructose, etc. Acetone is used as a solvent. While Fructose and other sugars are used as food source for carbohydrates.

Alcohols

Alcohols are those molecules having -OH moiety linked to carbon atom directly. There are many types of alcohols based on the molecular size. They are used as solvents due to their high polarity. But not all of them can be used due to volatility issues. Ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and propane alcohol are widely used due to volatility and solubility properties. Also ethanol is widely used for alcoholic beverages and also as a disinfectant to kill microbes.

Esters

These are the molecules which form oils and fats. Examples include Arachis oil, sesame oil, mustard oil, etc. They have long chemical structure and susceptible to oxidation when kept open for air for long periods. Some of them are used as cooking oil, for massage, etc.

 Ethers

They are the compounds having a profuse odor. Hence named as ethers. They have an oxygen atom linked to two carbon atoms. Ex: Diethyl ether (used as an anesthetic).

 Fatty acids

When esters break down, they release fatty acids and alcohols. They have -COOH structure in their molecules. Ex: lauric acid, arachidonic acid, etc. These fatty acids are used to make soaps.

Amides

These are the compounds formed by reaction of acids and amines. Amides form substances like proteins, silk, and even drugs like paracetamol.10. Amines: These are basic in nature and have an ammonia moiety. Examples codeine used for cough treatment. They are used as dyes to impart color to drugs, indicators in titration, etc. Ex: sunset yellow, methyl orange.

 Amino acids

These structures have both carboxylic and also amine moiety. There are many amino acids in the body. They help in the maintenance of body through the formation of proteins.

Check out for more Organic chemistry for dummies.

Aromatic compounds

These compounds are cyclic in nature but are unsaturated. They have an odor of their own. Ex: Benzene used as a solvent.

 Steroid structures

These structures are quite complex as seen in the diagram above. They form cholesterol and other structures. They are derived from fats and lipids. They are used as body boosters, drugs. Ex: betamethasone.

 Organic acids

Perchloric acid (HClO4), citric acid, tartaric acid. Unlike inorganic acids which are liquid in nature, these acids are in solid state. They are also not as strong as inorganic acids.

 Alkyl halides

These are the ones which have halogens in their chemistry. Examples: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

Functional groups of organic compounds can be determined by specific chemical tests. These tests help to know the nature of the unknown compound in the lab.

About Zaighum Shah 90 Articles
Zaighum Shah is a mechanical engineer having more than 20 years of experience. Zaighum is specializing in product development in Sugar Mill industries. Zaighum has gone through all phases of mechanical engineering and it’s practical implementation. Zaighum has been solving most complex problems, designing new systems and improving existing models and systems.